Bica (Portugal) when you are in Portugal, say simply “Bica” and you shall become an Espresso.

Cafe Pingado (Portugal) is like an Espresso with a couple of drops of milk.

Café Solo (Spain) an Espresso in Spain.

Coffee oil– along with colour, viscosity must be a principal element of quality. Although every expectation on water quality must stay relevant, water should merely play the role of making coffee flow, not wet. A Ristretto, being a water reduction to an Espresso, may at times be called “Coffee oil”, however, an Aristippos Black (or intense) exemplifies a coffee oil more accurately.

Decaffeinated Coffee – The German pharmacist and chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge separated caffeine from coffee after Wolfgang von Goethe persuaded him to find out what the active ingredient was. Others achieved this as well, but Runge is considered to have been the first one and thus the discoverer of caffeine.  The Coffee Merchant (and Nazi supporter) Ludwig Roselius started studying the effects of coffee on the human body, after his father died (1902) af the age of 59 and the doctors blamed it on his coffee habits. Along with the coffee merchant Christian Detlefsen he worked on the process of secluding caffeine from coffee and obtained its patent in 1904, leading to the production of decaffeinated coffee on an industrial level.

Espresso (Italy) is one of the most important coffee drinks and serves as the basis for must others. In 1999 the “Instituto Nazionale Espresso Italiano” acquired a certification for the drink this Nation has shaped throughout the century. Although first built in France, the commercial birth of the Espresso Machine took place at a fair in Mailand in 1906, where it was first introduced to the market.  According to this certification the drink consists of 7 gm of a dark roasted of coffee powder with 25 – 30 ml of water. It is served in a small cup, especially manufactured for Espressi.

Ethiopia – the land considered to be the cradle of Coffee.

Ristretto (Italy) More than an espresso, this coffee is very near to what one may call the essence of coffee. It is the same preparation of an espresso, with the proper machinery and the same amount of coffee powder, but with 1/3 less water going through the coffee. Herewith you do not necessarily get a “stronger” coffee, but more concentrated, dense, and the taste is a bit different. The hot water touches the coffee a shorter amount of time, thus producing less acidity. The more south you travel in Italy, the less water you will find in your espresso. Throughout most of Europe this particular drink is named in Italian (Ristretto means restricted, or limited), but  in Spain it is called “Corto” (short) and in Germany some speak of “espresso oil”.

‘Sitting Cashier’ (Vienna, Austria) up until 1840 this was the only woman allowed in Coffeehouses in Vienna. She sat near the vitrine with the cakes in it while being responsible for charging the customers for their drinks.

Turquino (Cuba) is considered by some to be the best coffee from Cuba.


This Lexicon is under development